Is eating meat as harmful as smoking?

This weekend the world awoke to hear that the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) had classified processed meat as carcinogenic. The media worked themselves into a frenzy in their attempts to bring readers the shocking headlines.

“Claims by world health chiefs that processed meats can give you cancer and are as bad for you as smoking cigarettes” – Daily Mail Online

“Processed meats do cause cancer” – WHO – BBC News

It all makes good headline but what is the truth behind this most recent decision from the International Advisory Committee? Can the press release from the International Agency for Research on Cancer shine a light on the nuance of these findings?
On red meat

“…the classification is based on limited evidence from epidemiological studies showing positive associations between eating red meat and developing colorectal cancer as well as strong mechanistic evidence means that a positive association has been observed between exposure to the agent and cancer but that other explanations for the observations (technically termed chance, bias, or confounding) could not be ruled out.”

The World Health Organisation (W.H.O) acknowledges that evidence is inconclusive. Do these findings mean that we should give up red meat entirely? Probably not. We may want to consider just how much red meat we consume. Recommendations from British cancer charities and the NHS have long stood at 70g per person per day. Whilst it is an important source of protein, B vitamins and heme iron – particularly for those amongst us who are anaemic and struggle to absorb the nonheme iron in plants – 12st century consumers eat more red meat than our ancestors did. Often in direct correlation with a decrease in the amount of vegetables, beans and pulses found on our plates.


On processed meat. This is where the IARC classification gets a little more unnerving. In this case, the statement is unwavering in its certainty.

“Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer.”

Group 1 also contains tobacco and asbestos substances, the origin of many claims made in current news headlines.

“Processed meat has been classified in the same category as causes of cancer such as tobacco smoking and asbestos (IARC Group 1, carcinogenic to humans), but this does NOT mean that they are all equally dangerous. The IARC classifications describe the strength of the scientific evidence about an agent being a cause of cancer, rather than assessing the level of risk.”

What does this classification really mean to the man on the street? The statement goes on to say that eating 50g of processed meat can increase the chance of developing colorectal cancer by 18%. Figures from the Cancer Research UK state “In 2010, lifetime risk of developing bowel cancer in the UK was 1 in 14 for men and 1 in 19 for women.” Therefore consuming processed meat must increase this figure by one fifth. It is only through understanding the original level of risk that we can comprehend the true dangers of our bacon sandwich.

The press release from the IARC and W.H.O goes on to conclude that the study of data and recent classification was important “because many people worldwide eat meat and meat consumption is increasing in low and middle income countries.” They also recognise that eating small amounts of red meat as part of a balanced diet “has nutritional benefits” and “these results are important in enabling governments and international regulatory agencies to conduct risk assessments, in order to balance the risks and benefits of eating red meat and processed meat and to provide the best possible dietary recommendations.”

So what shall I be cooking for myself, family and friends in the future? I honestly don’t believe that much will change in my regular eating habits. Bacon and sausage are a rare treat already, though ham may feature less in my lunchtime sandwiches. My husband and I often pad out meat dishes with vegetables, lentils or chickpeas for extra fibre. As for red meat vs other sources of nutrition, I think that the last word should go to one of my favourite food writers, Micheal Pollan and his book ‘Defence of Food’.
Eat food. Not too much. Mainly plants.”

The New Black – rosehips and honey

There is nothing new except that which is forgotten.

Marie Antoinette

Autumn is the perfect season for foraging as the hedgerows burst forth with elder, bramble and sloes. Amongst these sit an often forgotten bounty of ruby-red wild rose hips, once a very popular crop for those seeking winter nutrition. This member of the Rosaceae family is a relative of apples, quince and the ancient medlar – with many similiar qualities.

Rose hips washed, topped and tailed.

From the marauding vikings of the 9th century to school children in World War Two; generations have long been aware of the benefits of consuming the fruits of Rosa Canina. Famously high in Vitamin C they are also an excellent source of Vitamin A, with additional research suggesting that they may deliver beneficial anti-inflammatory properties useful in the treatment of arthritis and heart disease.

The downside to converting your haul into a syrup is the high sugar content required to balance the natural tartness of the hips. In an attempt to address this I have used the less processed (but still a sugar of course) honey. You may question the true content of vitamin C after boiling – my own research shows that the cooking process only destroys around 15%. A lower sugar preserve will not last as long but can be frozen; a process which also has no discernible impact on the vitamin C.

Notes on picking – wait until the hips are dark red in colour and soft enough to pull off the plant easily. Make sure that they are not in a spot that is regularly sprayed with weedkiller and wash them thoroughly before use.

Roughly chopped hips ready for boiling.


  • 1 kg of foraged rosehips
  • 1 1/2 litres of water
  • 340g jar of honey


  1. Wash your rose hips well and pinch off the top and bottom with your fingers. Rinse again. Rough chop with a sharp knife. (See picture above.)
  2. Place the hips and water in a large pan. Bring to the boil and reduce to a slow simmer for approximately 40 minutes. Turn off the heat and set aside for about an hour.
  3. After an hour sieve the juice into a large jug and discard the rose hips.
  4. Strain the juice again through a piece of muslin or an old tea towel. Repeat to ensure that the tiny little hairs from inside the rose hips are thoroughly removed.
  5. Clean your pan and return the orange pink juice with around 100g of the honey. Warm through, stirring continously until the honey is completely dissolved. Taste.
From left to right; damson cordial, hedgerow cordial and rose hip syrup.

6. If the syrup is still too sharp add more honey and continue until you are happy with the flavour. I find that about 150g – 170g of honey will usually suffice. Decant the finished syrup into bottles whilst still hot.

Add your rose hip syrup to hot water and lemon; dilute with sparkling water for a refreshing long drink or drizzle onto porridge an a cold, frosty morning.


Unchained – Local Food delivered with passion.

The passion for food often starts at a young age and this can certainly be said of Louise Brogan Hewitt, owner of Love to Eat and Brownie Mail. Whilst many of us hold fond memories of childhood baking with Mum and Dad, few can say they made their own 8th birthday cake.

This enthusiasm led Louise to a degree in Hospitality and Business Management. After working in the field for a few years and taking a year out to travel abroad she began to feel limited in her role as an employee. In 2008 support from The Princes trust enabled her to set out independently, so the first incarnation of Love to Eat was born.

“Initially Love to Eat was an outside catering company. I wanted to develop a business where I could express my own values, not be tied into that of my employer. It was about moving away from a few sandwiches on silver trays and offering a more exciting choice.”

Louise happily ran her new enterprise alongside working part time until personal circumstances created an abrupt change in living arrangements and – as a home run business – the base for Love to Eat. After spotting the premises that would go on to be the home Love to Eat customers love, Louise approached the bank for a business loan and nervously signed the lease for five years.

lovetoeatteamThis July saw the renewal of the lease and the opportunity to move the business up a notch. Louise has seen a great response to their ethos of good food, locally sourced and at an affordable price. The friendly team give the cafe a relaxed atmosphere where nearby residents can relax and socialise.

“I want to show that local, seasonal and even organic food doesn’t have to be expensive. We aim to be approachable, no food snobbery.”

So what next for this thriving local cafe? Louise has recently engaged with a scheme called Entrepreneurial Spark; a Leeds based idea offering structured mentorship and support for business both in the start-up and growth stages of development.

brownie pic 2“It is time for a more grown up version of Love to Eat. We still offer outside catering services and I am in the process of developing a new way of getting our popular brownies to customers who are further afield.” (Brownie Mail) “I would like to see Love to Eat become further involved in helping the community which supports it.”

If you would like to hear more about Love to Eat or are interested in engaging any of their services you can contact the team at Catch them on social media at the links below.

Twitter   Facebook   Website

Do you live in the Acomb, Dringhouses or Woodthorpe areas of York? Are you a regular customer at Love to Eat? Perhaps you have a favourite cafe hiding in your side of the city? I am always interested to hear your thoughts in the comments box below.

Product review – A cleaner, better world?

Please note: I never accept payment for reviews given on The Greedy Wordsmith blog, allowing me to provide you with an honest and unbiased opinion.

wpid-imag1009.jpgOccasionally I receive an invitation to carry out a review on behalf of a local business. These are usually for cafes or festivals and I always insist they be done without financial incentive so that I can maintain the integrity of any given opinion. Last week I was approached by Gideon Innovations to write a review of their latest cleaning product, bravely named One Off. Armed with the knowledge that I can’t be paid for a positive critique they handed me a bottle and instructed me to do my worst.

Now, as a food writer my kitchen requires regular cleaning. I often wing my way through an emerging recipe with feverish passion and little practical thought; leaving a chaotic scene behind me. Once the creative moment has passed reality sets in and I am left with the grinding task of tidying up. On top of this I have a real bee in my hair net about the ridiculous marketing tactics used by many companies in this field. I hate the way we are made to feel that our houses and, in fact we, are dirty and dangerous without the latest bacteria killing formula.

There are no such claims on the bottle of One Off – in my opinion – a good start. One Off is normally provided in concentrated form, allowing the user to dilute according to the task in hand. The website advises that I can use it on everything from carpets to the car bonnet with kitchen surfaces and the bathroom suite in between. My sample comes in ready diluted form, to what strength I am unsure.

I choose to begin in the bathroom. Most bathroom cleaners offer a comforting foamy consistency and a bright, ‘cleaning product’ scent. The One Off is clear in colour with no lather which is initially disconcerting. This lack of body is not representative of its abilities however and I quickly run through the usual tasks of bath, sink and floor. I also noted that it seemed particularly effective on the taps and shower head.

Rosehips ready for boiling, straining and mixing with honey. A typically messy job.

With no emergency stains on the carpet to attack, I move to the kitchen hob and recently stained sink. After a weekend of jam and chutney making the area is definitely in need of a good scrub. I spray the hob top in anticipation of a mammoth task before turning my attention to the fruit stained sink. It quickly removed the stains and once again I am impressed with the shine on the taps. One Off also makes short work of the baked on detritus on the hob top with only a little scrubbing, leaving a kitchen friendly scent that is not overpowering.

So how does all of this help you save the world? The development of One Off is motivated by more than simply introducing yet another cleaning product onto the market. Gideon Innovations hope to persuade you that this is the only product you require. By designing a solution that comes in concentrated form – to be diluted according to requirements – they aim to prevent the number of plastic bottles in circulation and change the way we think about cleaning our homes. The website claims that using One Off will “help the end user to retrain or reset the concept of domestic chemical use” in its multi purpose application.

In summary, this is a product that I would recommend, not only because of its performance but because of the care and consideration demonstrated in the company message.

Rating out of ****

  • Value for money ***
  • Performance ****
  • Smell/Appearance ****
  • Overall****

Unchained – A quick lunch with the man

Looking forward to the chance to cook and relax this weekend, the man and I popped by Bishopthorpe road and the excellent M and K butchers. The quest for game complete (partridge and rabbit to be exact) we decided to drop in for a cup of tea at the much celebrated Puddin & Pie.

Despite hearing a lot about this Bishy road stalwart I had not yet taken the opportunity to sample from their menu. We had hardly stepped through the door when the man realised the meaning behind the name. Pie. Mash. Gravy.

wpid-imag0900.jpgWe didn’t really need persuading to stay for more than a pot of Yorkshire builders. I opted for the tempting lamb, chickpea and chorizo whilst the man plumped for the more traditional chicken and leek. There is a choice of mash, peas and gravy in all it’s combinations and two vegetarian options for committed herbivores.

Our waitress told us that the pies were all sourced from Toms Pies in Devon. The menu informs diners that additional ingredients are sourced nearby and the whole cafe has a comfortable feel of a place catering to a local community. Our meal was tasty, satisfying and just the right size for a day time meal; leaving you full but not overwhelmed. With prices around the £5.00 to £7.00 mark Puddin & Pie offer an excellent value lunch that will not dissapoint.

Gingerbread spice and all things nice….

In the last of this trinity of York Food and Drink festival updates I share my favourite spice mix for adding a touch of the medieval to your baking. Whilst it is fantastic applied to a modern gingerbread biscuit like the one mentioned in my Christmas 2014 History Girls blog, feel free to throw it into a traditional shortbread, apple pie or even rub all over your favourite roasting joint before popping it in the oven.wpid-wp-1437388669949.jpeg

1 teaspoon ground white pepper
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
3 tablepoons ground ginger
½ teaspoon ground mace or nutmeg
¼ teaspoon ground cloves

A fricassee of rabots – a modern take on a 17th century recipe.

This second rapid installment for ‘The new black’ grew from a current archive project at North Yorkshire County Council records office. Norton Conyers, near Ripon kindly donated their family documents, including a handwritten manuscript of household management and recipes dated around 1669.

demo picThe original receipt contains an elaborate dish of rabbit, veal, oysters and sweetbreads layered with pieces of bread and slow cooked in white wine and light ale. When invited to join Rachel Greenwood in presenting said recipe at York Food Festival, I decided to deconstruct it’s more accessible components and present these in a more manageable format. I have also included the instructions for frying the oysters and sweetbreads as we did at the demonstration.

Rabbit Fricassee
Serves 4 -6 with sides


450g – 500g diced rabbit off the bone.
4 – 5 shallots or 1 large onion, peeled and sliced
4 – 5 preserved anchovies
Splash of dry white wine
Small glass of brown beer
One tablespoon Marigold vegetable bouillon powder
Small bunch of fresh herbs (parsley, thyme, sage, rosemary, oregano)
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg or mace
Salt and pepper
One loaf of day old bread, preferably sourdough

Place a spoonful of fat in a large saucepan. Don’t automatically dismiss the use of lard; it is around 20% lower in saturated fat and in my opinion lends a lighter note when frying. Brown the rabbit in small batches and set aside.bay leaves

In the same pan sweat your sliced onion until translucent before adding the anchovies, nutmeg and bouillon. Return the rabbit and top with 200ml of water, the white wine and glass of brown beer. Tuck in your selection of herbs, bring to the boil and reduce to a simmer.

Simmer gently for around 30 – 40 minutes until the rabbit is cooked through. Taste the sauce and season with salt and pepper to taste.

The final dish results in tender rabbit and a light, flavourful broth that matches wonderfully with wet polenta and a bitter green salad. To serve in a traditional way place a slice of your slightly stale sourdough in each soup bowl and top with a generous spoonful of the meat and sauce. Provide a large green salad for guests to help themselves.

Garnish of oysters and sweetbreads

Two oysters/sweetbreads per person
Spelt flour
Pinch of mace or nutmeg

Buy your oysters and sweetbreads on the day required so that they are as fresh as possible. Sweetbreads usually need to be ordered ahead of time but many local butchers can get you them with a little notice.

Beat two eggs with 300ml of milk. Add enough spelt flour to make a thick batter and season with the nutmeg.

Place a spoonful of lard in a frying pan and heat until red hot. Dip the oysters/sweetbreads into the batter and drop into your frying pan a few at a time. It will only takes 30 seconds or so until for them to cook through and reach golden brown on the outside.

Serve alongside the rabbit and green salad.

The New Black – A breakfast to go a-viking.

Nothing is new except that which is forgotten

Marie Antoinette

After sharing my 9th century inspired stoup in the York Food and Drink Festival cookbook; a Viking inspired, mixed grain porridge seemed an appropriate ‘New Black’ post for early October.

From top clockwise. Darker grains of the rye; pale white barley flakes and cream coloured rolled oats.

The inclusion of barley and rye flakes offers a deliciously nutty texture and fits with the typical diet of the time. Buttermilk gives a creamy texture with a sharp aftertaste that balances wonderfully with the natural sweetness of the topping.In addition to the honey, I have finished my porridge with nuts available to Vikings foraging in the 9th century. Dates and figs also work extremely well; as does a sprinkle of cinnamon, ground ginger or cardamom.

Barley, rye and oats each contain their own set of micronutrients along with heart healthy beta-glucen; making this a healthy and filling breakfast alternative for the winter months. The addition of native elderberries adds a boost of vitamin C and a dash of black blue colour. If you can’t find wild elder in your local hedgerow there is still time to replace them with the last of the picked over blackberries.


Serves 4

For the porridge

  • 1 cooking apple
  • Small handful of elderberries
  • 2 cups of barley flakes/rye flakes/oat flakes combined
  • 3 cups of water
  • Pinch of salt
  • 5 tablespoons of buttermilk

The topping

  • Combination of hazelnuts and walnuts
  • Honey

Peel and chop the apple. Rinse the elderberries to remove dirt and insects before pulling from the stalks with a fork. Any excess berries can then be frozen until required. Place the fruit and a drizzle of water in a small pan. Cook until the apple is soft but still whole and the elderberries have broken down.

wpid-imag0897_1.jpgRoughly chop the nuts and toast carefully in a dry, non-stick frying pan. Place on the table alongside a pot of honey and extra buttermilk.

Choose a pan with plenty of room. Combine your mixed grains and water before bringing to the boil.. Stir well, reduce the heat and simmer gently until cooked through. Stir regularly to create a thick, creamy texture. If the porridge is too solid for your liking add more water. Season with a pinch of salt.

Remove your porridge from the heat. First stir in the buttermilk and then the cooked fruit. Return to a gentle heat to ensure your porridge is piping hot. I like taking the steaming hot pan to the table so that guests can take ladlefuls of porridge before adding their own nuts and honey.